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The Paris Agreement is an international treaty signed by 196 parties (countries and the European Union) in 2015 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It aims to limit global warming to below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, with the ultimate goal of keeping it below 1.5°C.

The Paris Agreement requires countries to submit nationally determined contributions (NDCs) outlining their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. It also calls for international cooperation on financing and technology transfer to support developing countries in their transition to a low-carbon economy.

Although widely supported by the international community, several countries have not signed the Paris Agreement. As of 2021, the following countries are not parties to the agreement:

1. Eritrea: A small country in the Horn of Africa that has not yet ratified the Paris Agreement.

2. Iran: One of the largest oil-producing countries in the world, Iran initially signed the agreement but has not ratified it.

3. Iraq: Another major oil producer, Iraq has not signed the Paris Agreement.

4. Libya: A country that has been in turmoil since the ouster of former dictator Muammar Gaddafi, Libya has not ratified the agreement.

5. South Sudan: The youngest country in the world, South Sudan has not yet ratified the Paris Agreement.

6. Turkey: A major emitter of greenhouse gases, Turkey signed the Paris Agreement but has not yet ratified it.

7. Yemen: A country in the midst of a humanitarian crisis, Yemen has not ratified the Paris Agreement.

It’s worth noting that even among the countries that have signed and ratified the Paris Agreement, there is a wide range in their level of commitment and progress towards meeting their climate goals. Nevertheless, the Paris Agreement represents an important step towards global cooperation in addressing the urgent threat of climate change.